Geography and Climate

Nigeria is situated in the Western part of Africa at the “trigger” of the continent. It is bordered by the Republic of Niger and Chad to the North, to the East by the Republic of Cameroon, the Atlantic Ocean on the South and to the West by the Republic of Benin (Figure 2.1).

The surface area of the country is approximately 923,770m2, and about 35% of this land mass is believed to be arable while 15% is said to be used as pastures, 10% as forest reserve, and 10% for settlements.

Nigeria, by virtue of its location enjoys a warm tropical climatic condition with relatively high temperatures throughout the year and two seasons; the dry and wet seasons. The climate of the country is influenced by the interaction of two air masses: the relatively warm and moist tropical marine air mass (mT) which originates from the Atlantic Ocean and is associated with Southwest winds in Nigeria; and the relatively cool, dry and relatively stable tropical continental air mass (cTs) that originates from the Sahara Desert and is associated with the dry, cool and dusty North-East Trades (Harmattan). Annual rainfall ranges from over 2,500mm in the south to less than 400mm in parts of the extreme north. Nigeria’s annual temperature range is between 18.45oc and 36.9oc for the coolest and hottest months respectively.

The landscape of Nigeria varies with mangrove forests and swamps bordering the southern coast, and hardwood forests further inland. The Niger and Benue River valleys make up Nigeria’s most expansive region. Nigeria’s highest point is Chappal Waddi (Taraba State) at 7,936 ft. (2,419m); the lowest point of the country is the Atlantic Ocean (0m).


People and Culture

Nigeria is the most populous black nation in the world, about one out of two West Africans is from Nigeria.


At a Glance

Population 182 million (2015)
Population, ages 15-64 (% of total) 53.2%
Population density 194.9
CapitalAbuja - FCT
Independence October 1st, 1960 (from United Kingdom)
Ethnic groups Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba, Fulani, and 247 others
Religion Christian, Muslim, paganism
Life expectancy from birth 52.8 years (2014)
Language English (Official), Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba, Fulani, & 500 more
Natural resources Crude oil, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, etc.

About 47% of Nigerians live in urban cities, where there is a diversity of people from all over the country. Overall, Nigerians are warm and hospitable people who often display a positive and friendly reception to foreigners.


Politics and National Vision


Government type Federal Republic
Constitution Adopted 5 May 1999; effective 29 May 1999
Legal system Mixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law/Sharia (in 12 Northern States), and traditional law
Administrative Division 36 States (see map above) and 1 Capital (Abuja)
Executive branch –          Chief of State: Gen. Muhammadu Buhari (Since 29 May 2015)

–          Vice President: Yemi Osinbajo (Since 29 May 2015)

Head of Government –          Chief of State: Gen. Muhammadu Buhari (Since 29 May 2015)

–          Vice President: Yemi Osinbajo (Since 29 May 2015)

Cabinet Federal Executive Council
Legislative branch Bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (109 seats, 3 from each state plus 1 from Abuja; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and House of Representatives (360 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges recommended by the National Judicial Council and appointed by the president); Federal Court of Appeal (judges are appointed by the federal government from a pool of judges recommended by the National Judicial Council)
Political parties There are thirty (30) registered political parties but the major three (3) are:

–          All Progressive Congress, APC (Ruling party)

–          Peoples Democratic Party, PDP (Main opposition)

–          All Progressive Grand Alliance, APGA

Elections President elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible only for a second term).
Central Bank Central Bank of Nigeria, CBN, headed by the CBN governor, Mr. Godwin Emefiele

National Vision

Vision 2020

Nigeria’s Vision 2020 (NV20:2020) economic transformation blueprint is a long term plan for stimulating Nigeria’s economic growth and launching the country onto a path of sustained and rapid socio-economic development. The blueprint articulates Nigeria’s economic growth and development strategies for the period 2009-2020, and will be implemented using series of medium term national development plan. For more information, visit: http://www.nationalplanning.gov.ng/images/docs/NationalPlans/nigeria-vision-20-20-20.pdf

National Industrial Revolution Plan (NIRP)

The NIRP’s underlying philosophy is to build Nigeria’s competitive advantage, to broaden the scope of industry, and to accelerate expansion of the manufacturing sector. To see more, visit: http://www.nepza.gov.ng/downloads/nirp.pdf

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